Napoleon’s Rise to Power
Early Success 1793, drove British forces out of Toulon. Defeated the Austrians in multiple battles, forcing the Hapsburg emperor to make peace. Set up a three-man governing board known as the Consulate. Took the title of first consulate and in 1802 had himself named consul for life.
A New France, A New Emperor By 1804, Napoleon had enough power to become Emperor. Napoleon knew he had support as he held a plebiscite, or ballot in which voters say yes or no. Each time, the French strongly supported him.
France Under Napoleon
Reforms and the Napoleonic Code Controlled prices, encouraged industry and built roads and canals to restore economic prosperity. Made peace with the Catholic Church.
Napoleonic Code Enlightenment Principles Equality of all citizens, religious toleration. However, women lost most of their newly gained rights.
Building an Empire
A New European Empire Napoleon annexed, or added outright to France lands including the Netherlands, Belgium, parts of Italy and Germany. The Battle of Trafalgar French naval defeat at the hands of the British. The Continental System Economic warfare waged against the British by closing European ports to British goods. The British responded with its own blockade. This plan did not defeat the British, instead resent grew as prices throughout Europe rose.
The End of an Era
Downfall of Napoleon Russia Czar Alexander I withdraws from the Continental System due to economic and political frustrations. Napoleon responds by sending 400,000 soldiers to Russia. Instead of fighting, Russians retreat East, burning crops and villages (scorched earth) as they went. When Napoleon entered Moscow he realized he could not feed his troops so he returned home with only 10,000 troops.
Waterloo After returning from exile Napoleon fought the British and Prussian armies at Waterloo, Belgium. The French lost in a day long battle and Napoleon was forced into exile again.
The Congress of Vienna
Gathering of Leaders Dignitaries from Austria, Russia, Britain and France met after the battle of Waterloo. Goals of the Congress Create a lasting peace between the four nations. By legitimacy, or restoring monarchies, Europe was returned to the “status quo.” Balance of Power A policy that no one state should be in the position to threaten the independence of another.
Problems of the Peace Defeating Napoleon led to tremendous nationalism within the victorious countries. The Congress however redrew national boundaries without concern for national cultures. This angered European countries and eventually caused the Quadruple Alliance to break apart.