Lisitsina Kseniya 7-A Lyceum № 2 Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
English and British dynasties
Saxon dynasty Danish dynasty Anglo-saxon dynasty Norman dynasyty Plantagenet dynasty Lancaster dynasty . York dynasty Tudor dynasty Stuart dynasty Hanover dynasty Windsor (before 1917 year – Saxe- Coburg - Gotha) dynasty Since the 9th century to nowadays the throne of Great Britain has been occupied by 11 royal dynasties: Dynasties included 61monarch persons. A lot of them had nicknames and characteristing epithets
The nicknames and characteristing epithets of the royal persons and the reason of their getting is going to be very important , significant for the research because:
to know more about royal persons: their appearance and features of their character to define the peculiarities of the rule of this or that monarch to understand their life, customs, traditions and language better to broad linguistic knowledge in the field of such science as onomastics
The purposes of our research are:
to defined of the British Monarch’s characterisingepithets and nicknames; to descover the reason of their getting
According to the purpose of our research there were find the following problems:
To give the characteristic of monarch’s full name and its separate parts; To give the definition to the words “epithet” and “nickname” and define the difference between them; To find out what kind of nicknames and characterising epithets British Monarchs had, determine the reasons of their getting; Study the classification of the reasons according to which the nicknames and characterising epithets were given.
The object of the research paper is onomastics of the English language.
The subject of the scientific research is proper names consisted of epithets and nicknames which were given to the English and British monarchs during their reign.
The bibliography used while preparing the report, can be separated into several groups:
reference- books and dictionaries; scientific publications, which represent both monographs and articles from magazines; Manuals; the Internet resources
Methods of scientific cognition were used:
analysis and synthesis comparison generalisation classification definition of concepts
The applied prospectively practical significance is
in using the material on the lessons of English elective courses in the English language on extracurricular activities the prepared presentation can be the basis for the advanced self-learning of the British History and the English languag.
Unit I. Forms of a monarch’s name. Nicknames and сharacterisingepithets as a part of a monarch’s name
Monarchs and other royal representatives could have several names. The fullest name could be made up of a long line of titles, epithets and nicknames. For example: The full name of the British King Henry IV sounds as: Henry IV Lancaster, King of England, Earl of Derby, Duke of Hereford, Bolingbroke.
The separate parts of the full name can be divided into five main groups:
- Birth name – personal name; - Throne name is the name which a monarch person got becoming the king; - Title name – includes a noble man’s title; - Epithet stands for the tile name. When saying an epithet throne number is not use; - Nicknames –nicknames given with the birth very oftenwere included into the full monarch’s name.
- King Henry IV (according to the royal title) - Henry Lancaster (according to the ancestral name) - Henry IV English (according to the throne name) - Henry Hereford (according to the Duke Hereford’s title) - Henry Derby (according to the Earl Derby’s title) - Henry Bolingbroke (a nickname according to the birth) For example:
Richard Plantagenet, Duke of Aquitania, Earl D’ Puate, King of England, Duke of Normandy, Ear Andjuisky, Turish and Manskiy Richard the Lionheart(Львиное сердце) For example
Unit II. Problem of concepts "nickname" and "epithet" in modern linguistics
Today the researchers haven not come to the common opinion concerning the term
In dictionaries by S.V. Ojegov and D.N.Ushakov the definition “nickname” means a name given to a man according to his certain feature or characteristics. In“Synonyms dictionary” is emphasized that a nickname is a name given to somebody as a joke or mockery.
Ethelred the Unready (Этельред Неразумный) Henry Blue Beard (Генри Синяя Борода)
The classification gives rise to a discussion either
Differenr variants of classifications are given in the Z.P. Nikulina, D.I. Ermolovich’s papers. We have marked out those criteria of classification, which most researches had: -according to appearance; -according to personal qualities
Richard III Crookback (Ричард Горбун) The following British Monarchs are related to the first category: For example Edward I Longshanks(Эдвард Длинноногий)
But it must be marked that not all nicknames revealed the reality:For example
Sweyn I Forkbeard (Свен Вилобородый) William II Rufus (Вильям Рыжий)
Nicknames given for personal qualities are related to the second category For example
Henry Well writer (Генри Хороший писец) Edmund Ironside (Эдмунд Железнобокий)
There are some nicknames which can’t be related to the categories given above For example
RichardIIIHumpty- Dumpty (Ричард Шалтай-Болтай) Henry VIII Old copper nose (Генрих VIII Старый медный нос)
Unit III. Nicknames and characterising epithets of English and British monarchs. The classification of the reasons of getting them.
The definitions “nickname” and “characterising epithet”the difference is not so distinct.
The theorists consider that an epithet emphasizes a person’s individuality. It replaces the title name and throne number. For example: The Conqueror, the Great, the Saint
Edward the Confessor (Эдуард Исповедник) William I the Conqueror(Вильгельм Завоеватель)
Unit IV Nicknames and characterising epithets of the British monarchs now
In the course of time the real rule over the country went to the English Prime Ministers, who stated getting nicknames and epithets as well as they were given to royal persons earlier.
The prime-ministers of Great Britain
Margaret ThatcherTony Blair “Iron Lady” “Bushe,s poodle” “Teflon Tony”
Gordon Brown "The red is proud“ “Gold Brown" David Cameron «Direct David»
Elizabeth II «National grandmother»(Елизавета II «Национальная бабушка»)
Nicknames and epithets play a very important part in the British monarchs’ life. Some of them are the pride of the country as they reflect the most important moments in its history. Since 17th century nicknames and epithets have been given to the monarchs rarely. And now they are not used at all. The English prime- ministers are being given it. In modern onomastics the problem of the definitions “nicknames” and “epithets” and its classification has not been solved yet. The unfinished state of the linguistic process is the sign of its constant development.