Cardiomyopathy is called primary myocardial damage, which is not caused by an inflammatory, tumor or ischemic process. The following types of cardiomyopathy are distinguished: dilated; hypertrophic; With this pathology, relaxation (decrease in extensibility) of the heart chambers is impaired, blood circulation deteriorates, the shape of the left ventricle changes, the septum thickens, as a result pressure increases, and the walls of the outflow tract become thinner. restrictive; At the initial stage, patients' complaints practically do not differ from those listed for other types of cardiomyopathy. arrhythmogenic right ventricular.
In connection with the oxygen deficiency developing in cardiomyopathy, shortness of breath occurs, fatigue increases, and heart rate increases. At the initial stage of the disease, the listed symptoms are associated only with the effects of physical activity, and over time they appear at rest. Insomnia, dizziness, pain in the chest and under the left shoulder blade, edema occur.
Symptoms of cardiomyopathy Dilated (stagnant); Hypertrophic; Symptoms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, along with shortness of breath and chest pain, the patient's tendency to faint, increased heartbeat. With this pathology, rhythm disturbance can even lead to sudden death. But over time, swelling of the legs, shortness of breath and fatigue give way to more severe symptoms. The liver ceases to function normally, increases in size, then dropsy develops. The instability of the heart rhythm reaches such a degree that it causes frequent fainting. Restrictive; The most common symptom is ventricular arrhythmia. Among the complaints, patients call paroxysmal heart palpitations, most often - with significant physical exertion. Arhythmogenic right ventricular.
Hereditary predisposition Various viral infections Previously transferred myocarditis Damage to heart cells toxins and allergens Endocrine regulation disorder Disorders of the immune system Treatment Drug treatment: diuretics; cardiac glycosides; antiarrhythmic drugs; anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents Surgical treatment: septal myotomy (resection of an enlarged section of the interventricular septum) mitral valve replacement, as well as whole heart transplantation.
Ischemic heart disease
Ischemic heart disease is an acute or chronic myocardial damage resulting from a decrease or cessation of arterial blood supply to the heart muscle, which is based on pathological processes in the coronary artery system. Forms of ischemic disease: Angina pectoris (stable unstable), Primary myocardial infarction, Repeated myocardial infarction, Old (previous) myocardial infarction (postinfarction cardiosclerosis), Sudden cardiac (arrhythmic) death Heart failure (myocardial damage due to coronary artery disease)
Risk factors for coronary heart disease:
Gender (male) Age> 40-50 years Heredity Smoking (10 or more cigarettes per day for the past 5 years) Hyperlipidemia (total plasma cholesterol> 240 mg / dL; LDL cholesterol> 160 mg / dL) Arterial hypertension Diabetes Obesity Hypodynamia Symptoms: Pain behind the sternum, often radiating to the lower jaw, neck, left shoulder, forearm, hand, back. The pain is oppressive, constricting, burning, choking. Provoked by physical or emotional factors. At rest, they stop on their own. Lasts from 30 seconds to 5-15 minutes. Fast effect of nitroglycerin.
Valvular heart disease
Valvular defects of the heart - damage to the structure of the valves, surrounding tissues and heart, disrupting the circulation of blood inside it Types of heart valve diseases: Aortic stenosis and mitral valve insufficiency (common) Aortic valve insufficiency Mitral valve stenosis Mitral valve prolapse Pulmonary valve stenosis or insufficiency Tricuspid stenosis or insufficiency
Causes of heart valve disease:
Age-related valve calcification Dilation of the chambers of the heart or aorta Bacterial infections and chronic inflammation Tumors of the heart Symptoms of heart valve defects: Dyspnea Poor performance Heartache Heart rhythm disorder Dizziness Fainting Stagnant fluid Blue lips (cyanosis) Weight loss
Heart valve treatment and surgery
Congenital malformations can only be treated with surgical methods. Acquired defects can be treated in two ways, depending on the severity of the pathology and the individuality of the pathological process: Medication aims to treat diseases caused by defects. For example, treatment of heart failure, prevention of thromboembolism, treatment and prevention of atrial fibrillation. Commissurotomy (this type is a dissection of adhesions that are present with stenosis of the holes) Prosthetics