Презентация на тему "Comparative study of metaphor and metonymy"

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  • Comparative study of Metaphor and metonymy
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    Comparative study of Metaphor and metonymy

    MukhmedievaZarina 335 group

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    Plan:

    The definition of metaphor. Examples of metaphor Metonymy . Examples of metonymy Differences between metaphor and metonymy

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    What is metaphor? The word metaphor comes from Greek  metaphorá , which means ― «to carry over», «to transfer». As this name implies, metaphor transfers meaning from one object to another so that the second object can be understood in a new way. Metaphor is a figure of speech that compares two unrelated subjects without the use of connecting words like “like” or “as.”  Basically speaking, metaphor is describing one thing in terms of some other.These things have similarities as well as difference. The most significant difference is that the two belong to different domains.

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    A metaphor is a figure of speech in which an implied comparison is made between two unlike things that actually have something in common, for example “he is a lion in battle” A metaphor is an expression. This expression shows the similarity between two things on some aspects.  Metaphor, literally, means “this for that.” Or, replacing this word for that word.  More definitions of metaphor

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    Compare: The encyclopedia is a Gold mine. Here the encyclopedia‖ and Gold mine‖ are totally different but they have similarity in a certain aspect The encyclopedia is a dictionary. In this sentence, the encyclopedia‖ and dictionary belong to the same category. It is not a metaphor

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    Examples of Metaphor

    He is the true angel in my life. This example is indicative of the fact that the person being referred to is someone who has brought a big change into someone's life for the better, and is therefore being called an angel. My gym is a prison. This could probably refer to the fact that once in the gym, it is difficult to get out without exercising properly, which is ensured by the trainers there (who may be referred to as jailers or wardens). He is a snake in the grass. This is common metaphor that refers to someone who is not visibly bad or dangerous, but has eventually turned traitor. He is therefore a snake in the grass, not easily visible and that bites without warning. I do not follow the herd; I carve my own path. Yet another common metaphor used in everyday speech, the herd is symbolic of the common path most people take in life in terms of their career, relationship, or any other aspect.

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    More examples of metaphor:

    Sea of grief Broken heart  The light of my life  It's raining men  Time is a thief  Bubbly personality  Feel blue My brother was boiling mad.  The assignment was a breeze. It is going to be clear skies from now on.  The skies of his future began to darken.  Her voice is music to his ears. He is a tiger in class” Candle in the wind  mouse(animal)> mouse (pointing device for computers) grasp 'seize" > grasp 'understand,

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    Metonymy

    It is a figure of speech that replaces the name of a thing with the name of something else with which it is closely associated. We can come across examples of metonymy both from literature and in everyday life To make things simpler, a metonymy replaces words that are closely associated with the original word. In ancient Greek, ‘meta’ means change while ‘onoma’ refers to name.

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    Metonymy is used:

    in developing literary symbolism i.e. it gives more profound meanings to otherwise common ideas and objects to achieve conciseness to add a poetic color to words to make them come to life in literature as well as in everyday life.

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    Examples

     The suits were at meeting. (Suit is used in place of business executive. She works with a newspaper Dallas won yesterday's game. No one is sure what Moscow's response will be ( the association between an organization (an abstract concept), such as a sports team or a government, and its base location. While we can refer to the organization directly using its name, we often find it convenient to use the name of the location to refer to the organization)

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    Compare

    This book is almost too heavy to lift. I don't understand this book at all. Another conceptual relation that permits metonymy is that between a document and the content of the document. Thus the word book refers to a physical object: a collection of sheets with printing or pictures on them that is bound together. But we can also use the word to refer to the informational content of the physical book. In the first example, the speaker is clearly referring to the physical object, in the second example to the information contained in the physical object. In a case like this, metonymic extension allows a noun referring to a physical object to refer to something more abstract.

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    More examples

    Crown - in place of a royal person The White House - in place of the President or others who work there The suits - in place of business people Dish - for an entire plate of The restaurant - to refer to the staff Ears - for giving attention ("Lend me your ears!" from Mark Antony in Julius Caesar) Eyes - for sight The library - for the staff or the books The name of a country - used in place of the government, economy, etc The name of a church - used in place of its individual members The name of a sports team - used in place of its individual members  wheels to mean 'car'  brain to mean 'intelligent person‘ the Crown to mean the king; king’s are known to wear crowns England decides to keep check on immigration. (England refers to the government.) The pen is mightier than the sword. (pen represents the written word, and sword represents physical fighting.) The Oval Office was busy in work. (“The Oval Office” is a metonymy as it stands for people at work in the office.) Let me give you a hand. (Hand means help.)

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    Sentences using a metonymy

    We must wait to hear from the crown until we make any further decisions. The White House will be announcing the decision around noon today. If we do not fill out the forms properly, the suits will be after us shortly. She's planning to serve the dish early in the evening. The cup is quite tasty. The Pentagon will be revealing the decision later on in the morning. The restaurant has been acting quite rude lately. Learn how to use your eyes properly! The library has been very helpful to the students this morning. That individual is quite the silver fox. Can you please give me a hand carrying this box up the stairs? The United States will be delivering the new product to us very soon. Saint Thomas will be coming to the soup kitchen to help out next Sunday after Mass. The Yankees have been throwing the ball really well, and they have been hitting better than they have been in the past few seasons. Read more at http://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-metonymy.html#mVc4p4MIZIX7JPQi.99

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    She is the shoulder I always cry on. (This commonly used phrase is a great example of metonymy. It refers to a whole as a part, as in fact, it is the person herself who is a great listener of others' woes.) The blueberry pie wants to see the chef. This is what you will commonly hear in restaurants, as waiters and waitresses refer to their customers by their orders, providing yet another great example of metonymy Fox News has always maintained... Here Fox News is used is a collective term for its team members.

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    Difference between Metaphor and Metonymy

    Metaphor is used for substitution, while metonymy is used for association. Metaphor can mean condensation and metonymy can mean displacement. A metonymy acts by combining ideas while metaphor acts by suppressing ideas. In a metaphor, the comparison is based on the similarities, while in metonymy the comparison is based on contiguity.

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    Thank you for your attention!!!

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