Презентация по теме« Известные поэты и писатели Великобритании»
Шурыгина Анастасия 6А классМБОУ СОШ №8 города Пятигорска Charlotte Bronte (1816-1855)
Charlotte was born June 22, 1816 in the family of a village priest in Yorkshire. When Charlotte was 5 years old her mother died leaving the poor priest family of 5 daughters and a son. Liking solitude, Patrick Bronte paid little attention to the education of children who were prisoners in isolation who stood at the cemetery the dark Church house, the children were left to their own devices and the care of 8-year-old elder sister Mary, on which fell the burden of leading the poor economy. Sickly children don't know any fun children's society, nor peculiar to their age of games and activities; mental and intellectual powers were developed and strengthened with abnormally accelerated speed, in particular a closed world made of images and their dreams are not childish-minded fantasy. Harsh, devoid of diversity and warm colors surrounded by marshland, gloomy picture of the cemetery, the coldness and rudeness of a few people, with whom children had to face — such was the grim reality that caused children to go deeper in your inner perfect world where nothing was like surrounding. General very rarely saw him. Patrick Bronte. Charlotte's Father. (1777-1861)
Education, Cowan Bridge
In August 1824 his father sent Charlotte in Cowan Brigstow school for daughters of the clergy (two of her older sisters, Maria and Elizabeth were sent there in July 1824, and the youngest, Emily, in November). For admission to the school journal was made the following entry about knowledge eight-year-old Charlotte: <
> Cowan Britzskschool was the prototype for Lowood school in the novel "Jane Eyre". Poor conditions have undermined the already weak health Mary (b. in 1814) and Elizabeth (b. 1815) brontE. In February 1825 Mr. Bronte took away from school ill with tuberculosis Mary; in may of the same year the second sister, Elizabeth, was sent home, quite ill from tuberculosis. Shortly after returning to Heart sister Charlotte died. The two little girls Mr. Bronte took home immediately (1 June 1825). Heartcomhome in the parsonage, Charlotte and the other surviving children: Branwell, Emily and Anne began to write Chronicles the lives and struggle of the inhabitants of their imaginary kingdoms. Charlotte and Branwell wrote Byronic stories about the fictional British colonies in Africa, the center of which is the beautiful capital city — the Glass City (glass town, later — Verdopolis), and Emily and Anne wrote books and poems about Gondal. Their complex and convoluted Saga stretching back to childhood and early youth of the writers, have defined their literary vocation.
In 1831-1832, Charlotte continued her education at ROE-Hadshi school (Muirfield), which was headed by miss Wooler. To Margaret Wooler Charlotte until the end of his life maintained a close relationship, even though between them there were friction. A letter from Charlotte to her friend Ellen Nasse, 1844 At ROE Head Charlotte met with their peers Ellen Nasse and Mary Taylor, with whom became friends and later corresponded. Upon completing his education, Charlotte in 1835-1838, he worked as a teacher at ROE Head. According to the decision of the family, Charlotte had brought with him to school Emily: she has to pay for his younger sisters from his salary. However, the inability of Emily to live in a new place among strangers changed the initial plans: Emily had to send home, and her place was taken by Anne.
The Letter To Hartley Coleridge
From my conversation with Robert Southey, Charlotte drew three lessons: first, she decides to abandon poetry and turn to prose, secondly, plans to reject romanticism in favor of realism, and, third, from now on decides to use a pseudonym that no flattery to the woman, nor the traditional beliefs hindered the assessment of its works. In 1840 she sends the first Chapter of the novel has conceived "Ashworth" to Hartley Coleridge (son of the famous poet) Coleridge, obviously, made a number of observations, the essence of which sloped down to the fact that the novel will not be accepted by publishers. The appeal of Charlotte, apparently, was prompted by the advice of her brother, Branwell, who met Coleridge in his translation of the "Odes" of Horace. A letter to Hartley Coleridge to Charlotte did not survive. Her response letter exists in two copies: the draft and sent a clean copy.
The first publications
According to Charlotte it is known that before the appearance in print of a collection of poems by Carrera, Ellis, and Acton the Site in a magazine published her translations of French poetry. However, as noted by the writer, he published anonymously. Since Charlotte did not indicate where and when was it translated, to set the date of its first publication as yet.
Beginning of literary career
In may 1846 Charlotte, Emily and Anne published, at its expense, a joint collection of poetry under the pseudonyms Carrer, Ellis and Acton bell. Despite the fact that it sold only two copies of the collection, the sisters continued to write, keeping in mind the following publication. In the summer of 1846 Charlotte began seeking publishers for novels Carrera, Ellis, and Acton the Site: these were respectively the "Teacher", "Wuthering heights" and "Agnes grey". Publishing the first book on family funds, Charlotte in the future wanted to save on publishing, but rather to get the opportunity to earn a literary work. However, her younger sisters were willing to take the risk again. So Emily and Anne accepted the offer of the London publisher Thomas Newby who requested for the edition of "Wuthering heights" and "Agnes grey is" 50 pounds as a guarantee, promising to return the money, if he manages to sell 250 copies of the 350 (circulation of books). This money is Newby not returned, despite the fact that the whole circulation was sold on the wave of success of Charlotte's novel "Jane Eyre" at the end of 1847. Charlotte herself refused the offer of Newby. She continued correspondence with London firms trying to interest them in his novel "the Master." All the publishers rejected it, however, literary consultant of the firm of "Smith, elder and company" sent a Carrera Bella a letter, which kindly explained the reasons for the refusal: the novel lacks the excitement that would allow the book to sell well. In the same month (August 1847), Charlotte had sent to the firm of "Smith, elder and company" the manuscript of "Jane Eyre". Roman was adopted and printed in record time.
Throughout her life Charlotte has repeatedly refused marriage, sometimes perceiving marriage proposal seriously, sometimes treating them with humor. However, she chose to accept the offer of assistant to his father, the priest Arthur bell Nicholls. Charlotte met her future husband in the spring of 1844, when Arthur bell Nicholls arrived in Heart. The first impression of Charlotte from her father's assistant was not flattering.Charlotte was married in June 1854. In January 1855, her health deteriorated sharply. In the month of February, the doctor who examined the writer came to the conclusion that the symptoms indicate the onset of pregnancy and pose no danger to life.
Charlotte suffered from constant nausea, lack of appetite, extreme weakness, leading to rapid depletion. However, according to Nicholls, only in the last week of March it became clear that Charlotte dies. The cause of death was never established. Charlotte died on 31 March 1855, aged 38 years. The certificate of death the cause was listed as tuberculosis, but is believed by many biographers of Charlotte, she could have died from dehydration and exhaustion, caused severe toxicity. We can also assume that Charlotte died from typhus which she may have infected the old maid Tabitha Aykroyd, who died shortly before the death of Charlotte. The writer was buried in the family vault in the Church of St. Michael located in Huarte, West Yorkshire, England.
The Works Of Charlotte Bronte
Two romantic novels: "the Twelve adventurers" and "Adventure in Ireland" (1829) Recent work, in fact, not the story, and the story. The Magazine "Young People" (1829-1830) The pursuit of happiness (1829) The characters of distinguished people of our times (1829) Stories about the islanders. In 4 volumes (1829-1830) Evening walk, a poem of the Marquis Duero (1830) The English translation of verses of the First book "Henriade" Voltaire (1830) Albion and Marina (1830). The first "love" the story of Charlotte's, written under the influence of Byron; the nature of the Marina is consistent with the nature of Haida from the poem "don Juan". The story of Charlotte's is somewhat mystical in nature. Adventures Of Ernest'alembert. A tale (1830) Violet and other poems of the Marquis Duero (1830) Wedding party (1832) (poem and story) Arthuriana, or Crop residues and (1833) Something about Arthur (1833) Two novels: "the Secret" and "Lily HART" (1833) Visits to Verdopolis (1833) The green dwarf (1833) Foundling (1833) Richard the Lionheart and Blondel (1833), a poem The unopened leaf from a volume (1834) "The spell" and "social life in Verdopolis" (1834) Book dump (1834) Meals and snacks (1834) My Angria and arriance (1834) "The network we have woven in childhood" [Retrospective] (1835), one of the most famous poems of Charlotte Bronte Current events (1836) [Kill the exile] (1836), a poem in two songs [Return Zamorny] (1836-7) [Julia] (1837) [Lord Douro] (1837) [Mina Laurie] (1838) [Stancliff Hotel] (1838) [The Duke Kill] (1838) [Captain Henry Hastings] (1839) [Carolyn Vernon] (1839) Farewell to Angria (1839) Ashworth (1840) first draft of the novel to print. Ashworth — a kind of alias Alexander Percy.
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