Презентация на тему "Особенности и трудности литературного перекладу"

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  • Особенности и трудности литературного перевода
    Слайд 1

    Особенности и трудности литературного перевода

    Презентация учителя английского языка ГБОУ СОШ № 364 Куденцовой И.В. 2014 год

  • Слайд 2

    Translation is a mean of interlingual communication. The translator makes possible an exchange of information between users of different languages. The point of the translation is a bridge between national and international literature. That is why its main function is the turning of spiritual values of one nation into the property of other nations. Translated literature can also be the indicator of condition, degree of development of national language. The level of translated literature, the quality of translation also assists to the development of national beginning in the literature of nation.

  • Слайд 3

    National Coloring

    Every literature work has its own national coloring. Every work is written in the conditions of the country where the author lives. Therefore the country with its language, mode of life, political, historical, economical atmosphere and many other factors influences on the work even if the author does not think of creating of any work that would be nationally colored. The national coloring can be one of the most difficult tasks for translator. National coloring is the property of the country or its history. Every nation is proud of its history, traditions and it would not be good if the translator does not manage to convey the national coloring or if he conveys it wrong. That is why the translator must be very attentive and careful with any kind of literary work.Any literary work appears on the national ground, reflects national problems, features and at the same time the problems common to all mankind. Passing from one nation to another literature enriches and extends the notion of peoples about each other. National coloring is not an appendix in the work but it is one of its main parts that create the work structure.

  • Слайд 4

    Translator must compare adequately the national character with the real life. It means that he must know social conditions and nation development whose literature he translates, he must know and understand the specific spiritual way of life, find explanations of problems caused with peculiarities of this nation and originality of his development. What must every translator know before he begin to translate works from another national literature? At first he must know and understand the individuality, unique of the author. Secondly he must know and understand the ideas of work. Thirdly he must take into account the plot, form, images, style, language etc.

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    The difficulties of the translating:

    In the scientific and technique literature the national psychological categories are less expressed. The original texts of scientific works and their translations must not differ much. The difficulties while translating are connected most of all with fiction books: the brighter it reflects national life the more illuminate characteristic situations the more difficult for the translator to find adequate functional figurative means. Originality and specific character do not show that the work cannot be translated but they show the creative character of the translation process. World literature knows many examples when translators managed to convey all the originality of works and these translations became masterpieces as their originals. Originality, national coloring of the work is not lost in the succeed translations and that is one of the main principals of creative translation activity.

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    Some exotic words can be adopted by language and lose their exotic character. Some exotic words can be adopted by language and lose their exotic character. Here are some examples. It will take much time to translate such word as Russian пирожок into national uncolored, neutral word entered in the kitchens and languages of many countries and to make people forget its strange origin. Sometimes a word can be used in a text not in the direct but in the figurative meaning. For example щербет can be used in Bulgarian language as an adjective in the meaning of something oversweet and it is almost similar with Russian сироп. We may say about the figurative meaning of words and phrases. They are used in metaphor and comparison. When an author says about mushroom’s cap “about two kopecks size” he does not mean a kopeck as a kind of money but only its two signs: its size and its round form, so the kopeck here has only word cover. The same with “stone jungles” and “cowboys of cold war”. 4. Among these examples there are phraseological units and expressions as well. For example, macaroni (international realia) and tyubeteyka (regional realia). Tyubeteyka , macaroni, also spaghetti entered in the languages by way of transcription.

  • Слайд 7

    The task and mission of the translator especially the translator of feature literature is defense of the riches and beauty of the native language, its unlimited abilities to convey all that is kept in the greatest masterpieces of world literature.

  • Слайд 8

    Sonnet #18 (W.Shakespeare)Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date; Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimmed; And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance or nature's changing course untrimmed: But thy eternal summer shall not fade, Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st, Nor shall Death brag thou wand'rest in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st. So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.   

    Перевод Игоря Фрадкина   Перевод М. Чайковского Могу ль тебя равнять я с летним днем? Ты и желанней и милей рассвета: Рвет почки Май, вовсю грохочет гром, Непродолжительно, капризно Лето: Сегодня ярко солнышко горит, А завтра - скрыто безобразной тучей: Проходит срок, и все теряет вид: Красою правит Время или Случай. Но ты, похитив прелесть летних дней, Нетленен - век твой будет бесконечен: Смерть не возьмет тебя в страну Теней, Ты не умрешь, в стихах увековечен, Жить будешь в них, свой продолжая век , Доколе зрит и дышит человек.       Сравню ли я тебя с весенним днем? Нет, ты милее длительной красою: Злой вихрь играет нежным лепестком, Весна проходит краткой полосою. Светило дня то шлет чрезмерный зной, То вдруг скрывается за тучей мрачной... Нет красоты, что, строгой чередой Иль случаем, не стала бы невзрачной. Твоя ж весна не ведает теней, И вечный блеск ее не увядает. Нет, даже смерть бессильна перед ней! На все века твой образ просияет. Пока есть в людях чувства и мечты, Живет мой стих, а вместе с ним и ты .  

  • Слайд 9

    The theme of Motherland

    It is easy to note that major part of themes and problems in the different national literature are much alike.. But treatment to these themes and solutions of these problems are various in the works of different cultures. For example the theme of Motherland in poems of A. Block and R. Burns . Common to all mankind theme of Motherland these poets express in different ways: their lyrical characters express their feelings differently and have different notions of Motherland. Ideal of Motherland in these poets' minds was formed in the different nations and spiritual environment. For Russian poet Alexander Block his Motherland is the most desirable dream, hope that it will be the place of his last rest. In his poem Russia embodies its beautiful nature; for Robert Burns Motherland is associated with the figure of the mother's sadness missing her sons who fight for the freedom and will never come back. But both poets express the common to all people feeling of love to Motherland .

  • Слайд 10

    My Heart's In The Highlands, written by an English poet Robert Burns in 1789

    .Я сердцем на севере.   Я сердцем на севере, здесь его нет, Оно за оленем несется во след. За диким оленем летит по пятам. И, где бы я ни был, всем сердцем я там.      Прощай же, мой гордый шотландский народ, Отечество доблести, славы оплот. Куда бы ни шел я, и где б ни бродил, Я горы родные навек полюбил.   Прощайте же, горы под шапкой снегов, Прощайте долины и зелень лугов,   Прощайте леса и высокие рощи, Прощайтепотокиневиданноймощи!   В ГОРАХ МОЕ СЕРДЦЕ     В горах мое сердце... Доныне я там. По следу оленя лечу по скалам. Гоню я оленя, пугаю козу. В горах мое сердце, а сам я внизу.   Прощай, моя родина! Север, прощай, - Отечество славы и доблести край. По белому свету судьбою гоним, Навеки останусь я сыном твоим!   Прощайте, вершины под кровлей снегов, Прощайте, долины и скаты лугов, Прощайте, поникшие в бездну леса, Прощайте, потоков лесных голоса.   В горах мое сердце... Доныне я там. По следу оленя лечу по скалам. Гоню я оленя, пугаю козу. В горах мое сердце, а сам я внизу!  

  • Слайд 11

    My Heart's In The Highlands1789

      Farewell to the Highlands, farewell to the North, The birth-place of Valour, the country of Worth; Wherever I wander, wherever I rove, The hills of the Highlands for ever I love.   My heart's in the Highlands, my heart is not here, My heart's in the Highlands, a-chasing the deer; Chasing the wild-deer, and following the roe, My heart's in the Highlands, wherever I go.   Farewell to the mountains, high-cover'd with snow, Farewell to the straths and green vallies below; Farewell to the forests and wild-hanging woods, Farewell to the torrents and loud-pouring floods. My heart's in the Highlands, &c.      

  • Слайд 12

    Особенности перевода поэтического текста:

    Является ли русский перевод дословным? Кто из авторов более точно перевел сонет Шекспира? Возможна ли дословная передача смысла при переводе на русский язык? Есть ли в этом необходимость? Что такое «подстрочник»? Сохраняется ли английский тип рифмовки в русском переводе? Кто из переводчиков сохранил оригинальную организацию текста (повторяемость строк, единоначалие и др.)? Сохраняется ли синтаксическая организация текста в переводах? В чем заключается разница в употреблении знаков препинания? Какие особенности перевода можно выделить на лексическом уровне? Почему один автор использует нарицательные существительные конкретного типа (кто?), а другой – отвлеченного (абстрактного)? Какой эффект это дает? Какие существительные использует У.Шекспир? В какой части сонета концентрируется основная мысль автора? Передано ли это переводчиками?

  • Слайд 13

    Words of wisdom can guide you in your journey through life.

    Wise sayings come in many forms, from quotes to verses to biblical passages, as well as through inspiring poems. But some of the best known sources of wisdom come from ancient proverbs taken from many different countries and cultures. So what exactly is a proverb? Here is the definition A proverb (from the Latin proverbium) is a simple and concrete saying popularly known and reversed, which expresses a truth, based on common sense or the practical experience of humanity. They are often metaphorical. A proverb that describes a basic rule of conduct may also be known as a maxim. If a proverb is distinguished by particularly good phrasing, it may be known as an aphorism. (taken from Wikipedia.) Certainly proverbs and sayings are the special point for translators in their work. A translator can translate the phrase word by word or change for another saying with the same meaning which is more adequate in that country.

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    Proverbs, quotations and sayings about language

    Arabic: The stength of a person is in his intelligence and his tongue. Hawaiian In the language there is life; in the language there is death Hungarian The nation lives through its language. Greek Language/Tongue has no bones but it breaks bones. Indonesian Language represents the nation. Korean A word becomes a seed = what you say is what you get Malay Language is the soul of a race. Polish Talking is silver, while staying silent is golden. Welsh A nation without a language is a nation without a heart. Bulgarian The more languages you know, the more you are a person\

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    Proverbs are often borrowed across lines of language, religion, and even time.In different languages there can be the same words of wisdom.

    Адвымощендобрыминамерениями - Hell is paved with good intentions. Алмазрежетсяалмазом - Diamond cut diamond. Аппетитприходитвовремяеды - The appetite comes with eating. Бархатные лапки скрывают острые когти - Velvetpawshidesharpclaws. Богатствобезздоровья - ничто - Wealth is nothing without health. Как сказано, так и сделано - So said, so done. Каков священник, такова и паства - Likepriest, likepeople. Каков учитель, таков и ученик. - Liketeacher, likepupil. Каков хозяин, таков и его слуга - Likemaster, likeman. Хорошее здоровье дороже богатства - Good health is above wealth Хорошеелицо - всеравночторекомендация - A good face is a letter of recommendation. Хорошее начало - половина дела - Well begun is half done at every man's gate. Хочешь иметь друга - сам будь хорошим другом - The way to have a friend is to be one. Хочешь мира - готовься к войне - If you want peace, prepare for war Хочешь получить хороший совет - обратись к старому человеку - Ifyouwishgoodadviceaskanoldman.

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    An idiom (Latin: idioma, “special property”) is an expression, word, or phrase that has a figurative meaning, the words of which is separated from its literal meaning. There are at least 25,000 idiomatic expressions in the English language. A professional translator must know their specific meanings for not to be confused. An idiom British Sayings and Idioms 'Bob's your uncle' It is added to the end of sentences to mean that something will be successful. 'Keep your pecker up' Remain cheerful - keep your head held high.  'Big girl's blouse' A weakling; an ineffectual person.  'Burning the Candle at Both Ends' Working for many hours without getting enough rest  'Eyes are bigger than your belly' Think you can eat more than you can 'My eyes were bigger than my belly, I couldn't eat every thing I had put on my plate'  'Sleep Tight' Have a good nights sleep  'Gordon Bennett' An exclamation of surprise 'Tie the Knot' Get Married  

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