Expansion of english
MukhamedievaZarina 335 group
English as a global language The spread of English across the Globe: Social, Political and Cultural factors 4 phases of the global spreading of English Other factors of English Expansion
English as a global language
English is the language of commerce and tourism, of international politics, of science, the official language of international and multinational companies and industries, of computers and of the internet. It is assumed that about a quarter of the world`s population is already fluent or competent in English (that means around 1,5 billion people).
Kachru's Three Circles of English
2) The spread of English across the Globe: Social, Political and Cultural factors
From the seventeenth century onwards, the English began to extend their language over the world. It is due to so important factors as the power of the British Empire, the importance in the Industrial revolution taking place in England for the first time or the supremacy of America in all over the world. Moreover, we all know that English has become a global language in the last fifty years, being the official language of the international and multinational companies and industries, and the language of Internet.
2) 4 phases of the global spreading of English
17th and 18th centuries English spread as a result of British colonialism 18th and 19th centuries English spread as the language of British leadership in the Industrial Revolution Late 19th and early 20thc. English spread as the language of American economic superiority and political leadership Second half of 2th c. English spread as a consequence of American technological domination.
Expansion of the British Empire
Approximately from 16th century to 20th century During the 18th century, the expansion was bigger The largest empire in history Occupied a quarter of the earth’s surface “The sun never sets on the British Empire”
Map of the British Empire in 1921
B) Industrial Revolution
18th and 19th centuries The Industrial Revolution began in the United Kingdom. Britain was the leader of the Industrial Revolution Most of the important technological innovations were British. – harnessing of steam to drive heavy machinery – the development of new materials, techniques and equipment in a range of manufacturing industries – the emergence of new means of transportation (e.g. steamships, railways) At least half of the influential scientific and technological output between 1750 and 1900 was written in English.
The Industrial Revolution (U.S.)
Another English speaking country, the USA, continued the English language dominance of new technology and innovation. electricity the telegraph the telephone the phonograph the sewing machine the computer, etc.
c) American Economic superiority and Political Leadership.
Late 19th and early 20thc. The United States has 70 per cent of all native speakers of English in the world.
d) American Technology Leadership.
After the World War II and particularly in the 1980s and 1990s, the computer revolution began all over the world. It was due to the American technology. So, it is logic that the language of the computers is English.
Spread of the English Language
English-speaking world (Dark Blue = English spoken natively // Light Blue = Other places where English is official
e) Other factors
Advertising Broadcasting Motion pictures Popular music International travel and safety Education