The Publicistic style
The work is made by K. Sokolova, A.Soldatova and A.Krotikova
The term of a functional style
Functional styles (FS) are the subsystems of language, each subsystem having its own peculiar features in what concern vocabulary means, syntactical constructions, and even phonetics. The appearance and existence of FS is connected with the specific conditions of communication in different spheres of human life. FS differ not only by the possibility or impossibility of using some elements but also due to the frequency of their usage. For example, some terms can appear in the colloquial style but the possibility of its appearance is quite different form the possibility to meet it in an example of scientific style. According to I.R. Galperin, a functional style of language is a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim in communication.
Classification of functional styles by I. V. Arnold
Colloquial Styles: literary colloquial; familiar colloquial; common colloquial. Literary Bookish Styles: scientific; official documents; publicist (newspaper); oratorical; poetic.
special political and economic terms (president, election); non-term political vocabulary (nation, crisis, agreement, member); newspaper cliches (pressing problem, danger of war, pillars of society); abbreviations (NATO, EEC).
specific vocabulary features of THE Newspaper style
The Publicistic style
is characterized by coherent and logical syntactical structure, with an expanded system of connectives and careful paragraphing. Its emotional appeal is achieved by the use of words with the emotive meaning but the stylistic devices are not fresh or genuine. Publicistic style is also characterized by the brevity of expression, sometimes it becomes a leading feature. English newspaper style can be defined as a system of interrelated lexical, phraseological and grammatical means which is perceived by the community as a separate linguistic unity that serves the purpose of informing and instructing the reader. Information in the English newspaper is conveyed through the medium of: 1) brief news items; 2) press reports; 3) articles purely informational in character; 4) advertisements and announcements.
A headline for newspapers is often the most important element on a page as it gives the reader an overall picture of the news. The main goal of a headline is to grab the reader’s attention so various stylistic devices are used. A headline should be gripping in order to attract people to read an article. Most newspapers now use headlines that say what has to be said in a minimum of words.
Alliteration: Welsh Win World; US Cuts Find Few Friends. Rhyme: Back in the Outback; Dirty Dealing in Cleaning. Rhythm: Thatcher Can‘t Catch; Spycatcher-Wright.
1. Use present tense for past events: Columbus Discovers New Route to India. 2. Use to for future events: Sun to Burn Out In 6 Billion Years.3. Omit the, a, an: Cow Jumps over Moon; Dog Watches, Laughs.4. Use comma for and: Jack, Jill Fall from Hill; Confusions Possible. 5. Never spell out numbers: Virgil Guides Dante Past 9 Levels of Hell. 6. Use colon for said or says: Galileo: ―I Confess Earth Stays Still.7. Use single quotation marks: Ceaser To Brutus: ―Et Tu? Falls by ―Unkindest Cut. 8. Omit be in its various forms: Candide, Pangloss Happy Cultivating Garden, except when emphasized: Hamlet Asks ―To Be Or Not ? Ponders, Decides To Be.
special grammatical features of Headlines
The Elements included in Emotive syntax
Parallelconstructions: What counts isn't how you look but how you behave. Antithesis : Setting foot on the moon may be a small step for a man but a giant step for mankind Epithets: I‘m Dead Angry With My Ban; ̳No More Nagasaki‘s‘ Call. Metaphors: ̳Hope Fades with Every Hour, Plan Hides Iron Fist. Simile: For the Rich Smells like a Rose to Seniors Allusion: A Tale of Two Germanys from Russia Without Love.
The Publicistic style
Phonetic features (in oratory) Standard pronunciation, use of prosody as a means of conveying shades of meaning, overtones and emotions. Phonetic compression. Morphological features Frequent use of non-finite verb forms: gerund, participle, infinitive. Use of non-perfect verb forms. Omission of articles, link verbs, auxiliaries, pronouns, especially in headlines and news items.
In oratory speech: use of rhetorical questions, interrogatives. In headlines: use of impersonal sentences, elliptical constructions, interrogative sentences, infinitive complexes and attributive groups. In news items and articles: comprise one or two, rarely three, sentences. Absence of complex coordination. Use of prepositional phrases. Absence of exclamatory sentences, break-in-the narrative, other expressively charged constructions. Articles reflect syntactical organization and logical arrangement of sentences
Newspaper cliches and set phrases. Terminological variety: scientific, sports, political, technical, etc. Abbreviations and acronyms. Numerous proper names, toponyms, anthroponyms, names of enterprises, institutions, international words, dates and figures. Abstract notion words, elevated and bookish words. In headlines: frequent use of pun, violated phraseology, vivid stylistic devices. In oratory speech: words of elevated and bookish character, colloquial words and phrases, frequent use of metaphor, alliteration, allusion, irony, etc. Use of conventional forms of address and trite phases.
Text arrangement is marked by precision, logic and expressive power. Carefully selected vocabulary. Variety of topics. Wide use of quotations, direct speech and represented speech. Use of parallel constructions. In oratory: simplicity of structural expression, clarity of message, argumentative power. In headlines: use of devices to arrest attention: rhyme, pun, puzzle, high degree of compression, graphical means. In news items and articles: strict arrangement of titles and subtitles, emphasis on the headline. Careful subdivision into paragraphs, clearly defined position of the sections of an article
The general aim of the publicist style is to exert influence on public opinion, to convince the reader or the listener that the interpretation given by the writer or the speaker is the only correct one and to cause him to accept the point of view expressed in the speech, essay or article not merely by logical argumentation, but by emotional appeal as well.
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